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Stepping up the challenge: six issues facing global climate change and food security
To this end, on 7 December 2014, a special seminar, Stepping up to the challenge – Six issues facing global climate change and food security, was co-organised by CARE International, the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) to inform COP negotiators, global development planners and policy-makers. Dr. Olu Ajayi, CTA Senior Programme Coordinator, ARD Policy, presented one of the lead papers at the seminar. The African Union Commission (AUC), represented by Dr. Abebe Haile Gabriel, gave a keynote address at the event. CTA also invited individuals to chair some of the sessions during the seminar, including farmers’ representatives from the Caribbean and representatives of the ACP secretariat.
A hackathon event on climate-smart agriculture
One week earlier, CTA, the International Potato Center (CIP) and CCAFS organised a hackathon on Climate-Smart Agriculture to deploy ICT tools that provide better and easier access to climate information. These, enable stakeholders to manage climate variability and make better decisions, and bring solutions that will help farmers to reduce the risk of crop failure. CTA also facilitated the participation of youths from the Caribbean, as means to upscale the impact of the event and achieve an economy of scale.
Agriculture should be integrated into UN climate change negotiations
As expressed in a CGIAR blog on this topic, this year’s negotiations are “an important opportunity to bring agriculture into climate change commitments and activities and tackle issues related to agriculture and food security.” In fact, agriculture is expected to be higher up on the agenda at COP21, to be held in Paris next year. On that occasion, CTA, CGIAR and Farming First will team up to provide support and disseminate knowledge around the incorporation of agriculture within climate change negotiations. This builds on their efforts in 2013, when they jointly developed a Guide to UNFCCC Negotiations on Agriculture – Toolkit for Communications and Outreach.
Week two of COP20 is now underway in Lima, Peru. Here's a round-up of week one from Sharon Lindo, International and Regional Policy Officer at the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre.
The Caribbean Community continues to carve out a niche for itself in the Climate Change negotiations underway at COP 20 in Lima, Peru. If the first week of COP20 were to be summed up in a few words, it would be one of celebrating small victories. But any seasoned negotiator would caution against celebrating now.
The Alliance of Small Island States welcomed the call by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change outcomes to inform the Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform and other UNFCCC processes. This augers well for CARICOM, who have always supported science-based methods to inform action in the negotiations. The region looks forward to the use of the IPCC reports and other similar scientific processes to inform the 2015 Agreement. Undoubtedly the Region is encouraged by this first step.
In addition, the Caribbean Community considers the decision on bunker fuels timely. Under this arrangement the IMO and CMO will be allowed to continue their work and report to the COP without having any immediate financial obligations.
There has been much discussion and variance in positions on the Co-chairs Decision Text. While the current text does not offer all things to all Parties CARICOM believes that it contains enough substance for Parties to engage meaningfully. This is especially important if guidance is to be given to commence work on the INDCs.
The Region is also looking forward to receiving the Revised Elements Text and the finalization of the Executive Committee for Loss and Damage. CARICOM continues to advocate for a seat on the Committee for SIDS as the issue is of paramount importance to this group.
Small victories are being celebrated in Lima, but the region is treading carefully and looks with cautious optimism at the week ahead. There are a few crucial items to be decided by the Ministers, including how to address the INDCs and whether these should only be based on mitigation, which is currently only supported by CARICOM. The end of the next week will reveal whether CARICOM Ministers are able to hold its position and convince other delegations of its merit.
In typical COP tradition the next week will be a marathon for delegations. By all accounts there still remains substantial work if countries are to meet the 2015 deadline. The unified voice of small island states in the Caribbean Community and the wider alliance is essential in the days ahead if the Paris meeting will meet expectations. Like the rest of the world, we are eagerly anticipating the final decisions of Ministers on Friday.
Finance for Climate Action Flowing Globally stood at $650 Billion annually in 2011-2012, and possibly higher
Annual public and private flows from developed to developing countries ranged from $40 to $175 billion
Dedicated multilateral climate funds - including UNFCCC funds – represented small shares during the same period, but are set to rise with the recent pledges to the Green Climate Fund amounting to nearly $10 billion
There is relative uncertainty in the global figures in part due to data gaps and other limitations, but efforts to improve the quality of measurement and reporting of climate finance flows are under way
Hundreds of billions of dollars of climate finance may now be flowing across the globe annually according to a landmark assessment presented yesterday to governments meeting in Lima, Peru at the UN Climate Convention meeting.
The assessment – which includes a summary and recommendations by the UNFCCC Standing Committee on Finance and a technical report by experts – is the first of assessment reports that puts together information and data on financial flows supporting emission reductions and adaptation within countries and via international support.
The assessment puts the lower range of global total climate finance flows at $340 billion a year for the period 2011-2012, with the upper end at $650 billion, and possibly higher.
Support from developed countries to developing countries amounted to between $35 and $50 billion annually, with multilateral development banks (MDBs), climate-related Official development Assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF) representing significant shares of resources channelled through public institutions.
Funding through dedicated multilateral climate funds – including UNFCCC funds ($ 0,6 billion) – represented smaller shares during the same period, and do not include the recent pledges for the Green Climate Fund amounting to nearly $10 billion.
The assessment notes that the exact amounts of global totals could be higher due to the complexity of defining climate finance, the myriad of ways in which governments and organizations channel funding, and data gaps and limitations – particularly for adaptation and energy efficiency.
In addition, the assessment attributes different levels of confidence to different sub-flows, with data on global total climate flows being relatively uncertain, in part due to the fact that most data reflect finance commitments rather than disbursements, and the associated definitional issues.
The assessment is an important contribution of the Standing Committee on Finance that enhances transparency and clarity on climate finance flows – including information on international support to developing countries.
In addition, the assessment includes a set of recommendations by the Standing Committee on Finance to the Conference of the Parties, which, among other things, include ways to strengthen transparency and accuracy of information on climate finance flows through working towards a definition of climate finance and further efforts that would enable better measurement, reporting and verification.
The assessment also recognizes the need for understanding the impacts of climate finance associated with emissions reductions and activities to boost resilience to climate change.
The 2014 Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows has been prepared by the Standing Committee on Finance following a mandate by the Conference of the Parties. The 2014 report was prepared with input from a wide range of experts and contributing organizations that collect data on climate finance flows.
Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, said: “Finance will be a crucial key for achieving the internationally-agreed goal of keeping a global temperature rise under 2 degrees C and sparing people and the planet from dangerous climate change”.
“Understanding how much is flowing from public and private sources, how much is leveraging further investments and how much is getting to vulnerable countries and communities including for adaptation is not easy, but vital for ensuring we are adequately financing a global transformation,” she said.
“I would like to thank the Standing Committee on Finance and the numerous experts and organizations who have contributed to this important assessment. It provides a baseline and a foundation upon which future assessments and more importantly future climate action can be refined and focused,” said Ms. Figueres.
“This first biennial assessment represents a milestone of the work of the Standing Committee on Finance. It is an important information tool for Parties to the Convention that provides a picture of climate finance flows and how they relate to climate actions, including the objectives of the Convention” said Standing Committee on Finance co-chairs Diann Black Layne and Stefan Schwager.
“Going forward, the Standing Committee on Finance will contribute further to improvements in the information on climate finance flows, including through collaborations with data collectors and aggregators,” they added.
More Facts and Figures from the 2014 Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows Report:
Global total flows: Most climate finance in 2011/2012 is raised and spent at home–in developed countries 80 per cent of the funds deployed for climate action are raised domestically.
The same pattern is seen in developing countries where just over 71 per cent comes from national sources
Around 95 per cent of global total climate finance is spent on mitigation or cutting emissions with 5 per cent on adaptation.
Subsidies for oil and gas and investments in fossil fuel-fired generation are almost double the global finance for addressing climate change
Flows from developed to developing countries: Multiple sources were involved in providing funding to support climate action in developing countries ranging from Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) to multilateral climate funds – including funds administered by the Operating Entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
For example, finance from MDBs is around between $15 and $23 billion annually; multilateral climate funds including via the GEF were about $1.5 billion, including those linked to the UNFCCC at about $0.6 billion a year.
48 to 78 per cent of finance is reported as fast-start finance (2010-2012), in Biennial Reports (2011-2012), through multilateral climate funds, and through MDBs supports mitigation, or other/multiple objectives (6 to 41 per cent)
Adaptation finance in the same sources ranges from 11 per cent to 24 per cent.
Notes to Editors
The assessment has tried to identify the flows to various sectors and initiatives–real precision in this area will have to await future assessments and the numbers need to be treated with caution.
Adaptation Investments Unclear
Assessing investments in adaptation is particularly difficult often because they can form part of a larger project such as an investment in a port of water supply system.
Meanwhile, there is also no universal operational definition of what constitutes adaptation and in addition publicly funded adaptation actions within countries–both developed and developing–is rarely reported or available.
As a result, flows from developed to developing countries are not really known with precision.
The biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows can be found on the UNFCCC website.
About the UNFCCC
With 196 Parties, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has near universal membership and is the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by 192 of the UNFCCC Parties. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, 37 States, consisting of highly industrialized countries and countries undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, have legally binding emission limitation and reduction commitments. In Doha in 2012, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol adopted an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, which establishes the second commitment period under the Protocol. The ultimate objective of both treaties is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
Credit: UNFCCC Press page
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International Meeting of the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Community of Practice
26-27 February 2015 – Lima, Peru
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) REGATTA and Practical Action Latin America are pleased to invite the members of the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EbA) Community of Practice to apply for participating on an international meeting to be held on Thursday 26 and Friday 27 February 2015 in the city of Lima, Peru.
The international meeting aims to strengthen the EbA community members’ network. For this, their participants will present and discuss different aspects of their experiences in EbA and will identify initiatives of mutual collaboration.
We are looking for the participation of members that have implemented EbA measures, of practitioners with possibilities of influence in relevant government and technical cooperation projects or programmes, and of those members that have contributed or participated in modules and/or webinars.
The first day of the international meeting the main challenges of EbA measures implementation will be discussed through the presentation of community members’ experiences in parallel sessions. The second day will be centered mainly in the discussion of joint initiatives, sustainable mechanisms for the community and fellowship activities.
The international meeting is open to all participants of the community of practice, but it will be possible to fund the participation of around 30 people. For those interested, please fill the application format and send it to email@example.com by Friday 19 December 2014 (5 pm Panamá EST) with the subject “EbA Meeting Application”. Early applications will have better chances. Participants receiving funding will be paid transport, accommodation and food costs.
Candidates will be assessed based on the EbA experience they present, on their possibility to influence government and technical cooperation projects or programmes, and on their contribution to the EbA community so far. Any application received after 19 December 2014 will not be considered.
Those interested in participating in the meeting self-financing their costs should send the participation form completed to firstname.lastname@example.org by Friday 16 January 2014 (5 pm Panamá EST) with the subject “EbA Meeting Participation”.
Call : Friday 5 September 2014
Applications deadline : Friday 19 December 2014
Results : Friday 9 January 2015
EbA International Meeting : Thursday 26 and Friday 27 February 2015
A contingent of Caribbean climate modellers and scientists recently participated in the VAMOS/CORDEX Workshop on Latin-America and Caribbean. The workshop was held at the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) in Lima, Peru ( September 11-13) and brought together an international community of regional climate modellers from South America and the Caribbean.
The workshop sought to:
(i) pursue an initial assessment of the various CORDEX downscaling initiatives over the South American and Central American CORDEX domains;
(ii) develop regionally focused vulnerability, impact and adaptation (VIA) user-knowledge; and
(iii) identify stakeholders’ needs so as to support the science-based information required for climate adaptation, mitigation and risk management in the region.
The Caribbean was represented by members of the regional modelling consortium, including presenters from the Instituto de Meteorlogia (Cuba), the three campuses of The University of the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago), the Antom de Kom University of Suriname, and the Trinidad and Tobago Meteorological Service.
The Caribbean presentations notably highlighted the coordinated and collaborative manner in which modelling is being undertaken within the region and the resulting science. The application of regional climate modelling in determining future flood risk at the watershed scale in the Caribbean was also a highlight.
To learn more about the work of the Caribbean regional modelling consortium, please click here and search for PRECIS (see examples below):