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Excerpt taken from the Inter-American Development Bank’s publication:
Integration & Trade Journal: Volume 21: No. 41: March, 2017
One of the greatest injustices of pollution is that its consequences are not limited to those who produce it. The Caribbean is one of the least polluting regions in the world but it is also one of the most exposed to global warming due to the importance of the tourism sector within its economy.
Carlos Fuller, an expert from the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, explains the consequences of the region’s dependence on petroleum and analyzes the potential of public policy for supporting renewable energy.
How is climate change impacting the Caribbean?
The Caribbean’s greenhouse gas emissions are very small because we have a small population, we are not very industrialized, and we don’t do a lot of agriculture, so we don’t emit a lot. However, mitigation is important for us because of the high cost of fuel and energy. Most of our islands depend on petroleum as a source of energy, and when oil prices were above US$100 per barrel, we were spending more than 60% of our foreign exchange on importing petroleum products into the Caribbean. In that respect, we really want to transition to renewable energy sources as we have considerable amounts of solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass energy potential.
Has climate change started to affect tourism?
It has. Climate change is severely impacting our natural attractions, our tourist attractions. For example, we have a significant amount of erosion because of sea level rise, wave action, and storm surges, which is causing tremendous erosion and affecting our beaches. Our coral reefs, which are a big attraction, are also suffering a lot of bleaching which is impacting our fish stock. Those resources are being affected significantly. We do have significant protected areas; however, we need more resources to enforce the protection of these.
What role do public policies play in developing renewable energy?
In some countries, [we’re] doing reasonably well on this front. In Belize, for example, we now have independent coal producers and we have transitioned to an increased use of hydro, solar, and biomass, so more than 50% of our domestic electricity supply is from renewable energy sources. However, on many of the islands, we need to create an enabling environment to allow renewable energy to penetrate the market. We are going to need a lot of assistance from the international community to put in the regulatory framework that will allow us to develop renewable energy in these places. We then need to attract potential investors to provide sources of renewable energy in the region. Of course, the Caribbean’s tourism is an important sector of the economy, which is one of the reasons we need to protect our reserves and natural parks. We are also trying to make our buildings more resilient to the effects of extreme weather. That is the focus of our work.
How does the Green Climate Fund work?
The Green Climate Fund is headquartered in South Korea and it has an independent board of management. However, various agencies can be accredited to access the fund directly. We have already applied for a project to preserve the barrier reef and another to promote biomass use in the Caribbean. So, we have two projects in the pipeline through the Green Climate Fund which are valued at around US$20 million.
Do you think that the Paris and Marrakesh summits brought concrete results for the region?
We were very pleased with the outcome in Paris. The objectives that the Caribbean Community wanted were achieved: the limit for warming was set at 2°C; adaptation was considered along with mitigation; finance, technology transfer, and capacity building were included; and a compliance system was put in place. All the things that we wanted out of Paris, we achieved, and so we are very happy with that.
Peruse the complete Integration & Trade Journal: Volume 21
Name of project: United States Agency for International Development/Eastern and Southern Caribbean (USAID/ESC) – Climate Change Adaptation Program (USAID- CCAP)
Grant No.: 538-RDOAG-DO3-2015
Contract Title: Supply, delivery, installation, calibration of one (1) airborne bathymetric Light Imaging, Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system
Reference No.: Contract #14/2017/USAID/CCCCC
Belmopan, BELIZE: May 31, 2017 – Dr. Kenrick Leslie, Executive Director of the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) and Dr. June Soomer, Secretary General of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) discussed collaborations on a range of issues when they met at the Centre’s office here on Monday, May 29, 2017.
Dr. Soomer, and her team paid a courtesy call on Dr. Leslie and his team, and took the opportunity to discuss areas of future cooperation and dialogue. In reviewing the scope of work and responsibilities of both organisations, both Drs. Leslie and Soomer agreed that the region could benefit if both organisations coordinate for the advancement of areas such as eco-systems based management, the development of scientific tools and data to aid climate change adaptation measures and on programmes that would help regional leaders to make more informed decisions.
Dr Soomer pointed to the organisation’s recent signing of a US$4 million grant from South Korea to assess and control the impact of coastal erosion and sea level rise in some member states. The grant is being used to do work in countries like Jamaica where CCCCC is also doing coastal protection work with KfW, the German Development Bank.
Other areas identified for parallel coordination efforts include fisheries, communication, disaster risk response and climate financing. Pointing to the Centre’s recent accreditation by the Greed Climate Fund (GCF), Dr. Leslie said:
“The Centre along with the Caribbean Development Bank are now able to access financing to help the countries of the region prepare for the effects of climate change”.
The Centres’ work, Dr. Soomer told the meeting, aligns itself to the ACS’ goal to take the achievements of the region to the rest of the world. Caribbean also has a lot to teach the world, she said, noting that in the case of small organisations like the CCCCC and ACS, “pooling the resources, can do a lot for the region”.
Dr Soomer’s team also included Ms. Tricia Barrow, Political Advisor and Alexander Girvan, the Caribbean Sea Commission Coordinator. Dr.’s Leslie’s team included Mr. Keith Kichols, Dr. Donneil Cain, Mr Vincent Peter, project development specialists, and Mr. Carlos Fuller, International and Regional Liaison Officer.
The ACS is a grouping of countries of the sharing the Caribbean Sea. The organization provides a framework for cooperation and dialogue to further the economic integration, intra-regional trade and investments to improve competitiveness of its membership.
PRESS RELEASE:- Commonwealth countries may soon be the benefit from a process called “regenerative development.”
Recently, Commonwealth Secretary-General Patricia Scotland welcomed high commissioners and climate change innovators to a Commonwealth-facilitated conference in London, calling on all to work together on technologies and approaches that have the potential to reverse climate change.
In her opening remarks, the Secretary-General noted that climate change can wreak havoc on ecosystems and societies. Some of the Commonwealth’s small island developing states face obliteration because of rising sea levels. In other countries, climate change is causing famine, migration and desertification.
Secretary-General Scotland pointed out that time and time again in Commonwealth countries including Dominica, Fiji, and more recently Mozambique, climate-related disasters had undone decades of development gains.
“The magnitude of the threat from climate change especially to those whose endowment or stage of development renders them more vulnerable and less resilient makes it necessary to shift from mere adaptation and mitigation, towards approaches capable of transforming climate change into a window of opportunity.”
Regenerative development is one such approach.
Mary Robinson, the president of the climate justice activist group—the Mary Robinson Foundation—stated that it was time that the narrative on climate change differed.
“We do need a new narrative on climate change and it’s a narrative based on solutions. The idea of regenerative development to tackle climate change makes much sense because we need to get carbon out of the atmosphere as much as possible.”
Regenerative development seeks to reverse the degeneration of ecosystems caused by human activities.
Credit: Government of Saint Lucia
St Kitts and Nevis is getting a climate-related Caribbean Development Bank grant of $538,000 euros.
The CDB says the funds will facilitate the conducting of a climate risk and vulnerability assessment of the federation’s coastal road infrastructure.
The CDB grant will also be used to prepare designs for the rehabilitation of two high-priority sites, according to a release from the regional Bank.
The bank’s board of directors has approved millions in loans and grants for ten borrowing member countries, including the grant to St Kitts and Nevis.
In the case of Dominica the CDB has approved a US$12 million line of credit to support education and housing.
The loan to the Dominica Agricultural Industrial and Development Bank is intended to assist in providing finance for student loans, and low and lower-middle income housing that, combined, is expected to benefit 400 people.
Haiti is being given a significant CDB grant to improve climate resilience, and disaster risk management.
The CDB says the grant of US$5.5 million to the Government of Haiti is to improve climate resilience and disaster risk management on an island off the country’s southern peninsula.
St Vincent and the Grenadines is meanwhile being allocated five million US dollars in loans and grants in additional support for the transformation of the country’s energy sector.
Other projects have been approved in The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, Guyana, Suriname and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Assistant Executive Director at the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Dr. Mark Bynoe, and Project Development Specialist, Dr. Donneil Cain, participated in a meeting of representatives of the Green Climate Fund’s (GCF) direct access Accredited Entities in Songdo, South Korea. The CCCCC is one of two regional Accredited Entities to the GCF.
At the meeting which was held between May 23 and 25, GCF’s Direct Access Entities worked alongside relevant National Designated Authorities (NDAs), GCF Readiness delivery partners and GCF staff to strengthen entities’ capacity across key areas of engagement with the Fund.
Expectations are that the meeting should boost the capacity of members to develop strong GCF funding proposal and GCF project concept note, as well as funding proposal development. Emphasis is being placed on refining proposals that have been already submitted to GCF; the key elements when formulating proposals, like mainstreaming gender, environmental and social safeguards, risk; and the Fund’s monitoring and reporting policies.
At the meeting, the Centre’s team presented on the Energy-Water-Nutrient Nexus for Sustainable Coastal Infrastructure Barbados (EWN – SCI Barbados), a project to integrate water and energy resource management, while discussing other project pipelines, said Dr Bynoe, who also heads Programme Management and Development at the Centre.
“The main objective is for the Centre to strengthen its relationship with the GCF as it seeks to unlock climate financing for the region to build their development resilience to climate variability and change,” he continued.
GCF’s direct access Accredited Entities are sub-national, national and regional organisations, which have been nominated for accreditation to GCF by NDAs (or focal points). Of the Fund’s 48 Accredited Entities, 23 are direct access. This modality is a key feature of the Green Climate Fund, which emphasizes the role of robust and competent entities to enhance country ownership of projects and programmes.
Dubbed the “Empowering Direct Access workshop” the meeting provided participants with the opportunity to share experiences and knowledge from their various perspectives including those which have already had GCF projects approved and countries with GCF Readiness Support activities underway. Participants also got the opportunity to meet with Readiness delivery partners who can help them to build capacities in their countries or organisations.
This, the second meeting, was focused on direct access entities; the first took place in 2016.
The Green Climate Fund has launched a global campaign to unlock private sector investment in climate finance.
The Fund is offering USD 500 million to support business ideas that drive greenhouse gas emission reductions and help communities adapt to climate change in developing countries.
This is the first time GCF has issued a call for proposals targeting the full range of entrepreneurial energies latent in the private sector of the planet’s emerging markets.
The campaign, which continues until 30 August 2017, follows from GCF’s recognition that the private sector is essential in filling climate finance gaps.
Find out more about this campaign at www.greenclimate.fund/500m
USD 110 million of new support for climate change mitigation, adaptation and resilience projects across the Caribbean as EIB and CDB sign new financing agreement
The European Investment Bank (EIB) and Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) have signed a USD 110 million financing agreement to support investment projects in the Caribbean under CDB’s climate action policy. The Climate Action Framework Loan II builds on the USD 65 million Climate Action Line of Credit (CALC) signed between EIB and CDB in 2011, and which supports nine projects in seven countries across the Caribbean. The EUR 100 million climate action initiative is the EIB’s biggest loan to the Caribbean.
Eligible investments under the Climate Action Framework Loan II include climate change mitigation, adaptation and resilience projects in renewable energy, energy efficiency, road transport, water infrastructure and community-level physical and social infrastructure that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve resilience to the impacts of climate change.
CDB President Dr. Wm. Warren Smith and EIB Vice President responsible for the Caribbean, Pim van Ballekom, signed the new agreement in the Turks and Caicos Islands on May 24, 2017, during the 47th Annual Meeting of CDB’s Board of Governors.
EIB Vice President, Pim Van Ballekom (left) and CDB President, Dr. Wm. Warren Smith (right) shake hands after signing the agreement for the Climate Action Framework Loan II on May 24, 2017 in Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands.
Pim Van Ballekom, EIB Vice President said: “We are delighted to be signing this new climate action loan with CDB, which is the result of a fruitful partnership that lasts for almost four decades, to support new projects in the Caribbean. This partnership is currently supporting CDB’s efforts to mainstream climate action to help its borrowing member countries (BMCs), which are all considered Small Island Developing States, to adequately tackle risks related to climate change. Caribbean countries face economic and social challenges which must be addressed whilst ensuring resilience to climate change. ”
CDB President Dr. Wm. Warren Smith said: “Through this new Line of Credit, CDB will be able to provide to its BMCs much needed low-cost financing to address the climate impacts already affecting these countries. The line supports our ongoing work to build climate resilience and the adaptive capacities of BMCs, as they work towards their goal of achieving sustainable development. The signing of this agreement reinforces the longstanding partnership between EIB and CDB, and signals strengthened cooperation between our two institutions.”
A healthy pipeline of climate action projects amounting to over USD 300 million for this new loan has been developed with support of an EIB-funded technical assistance programme.
To date, CDB has committed the total resources under the ongoing Climate Action Line of Credit (EUR 50 million), for nine projects. This co-financing is associated with total project financing of approximately USD 191 million (from CDB loans/grants, EIB CALC, counterpart and other sources of financing).
Representatives from CDB and EIB during the signing ceremony for the Climate Action Framework Loan II.
Since the approval of CDB’s Climate Resilience Strategy in 2012, 58% of projects financed have included climate change adaptation and/or mitigation elements. These projects were mainly in the sectors of water, education, physical infrastructure such as sea defences, drainage, and roads, and agriculture. Using the Joint Multilateral Development Bank Methodology, climate financing represented 13% of total CDB project financing in 2015. In 2016, CDB approved USD 50 million for projects with explicit climate resilience and sustainable energy actions.
The EIB has supported development and economic activity in the Caribbean with loans and equity investment worth EUR 1,6 billion.
Credit: Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
Environmental Safeguards Senior Specialist
The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is seeking to recruit an Environmental Safeguards Senior Specialist to lead the design and implementation of safeguards for Bank operations, as well as ensure that they meet the requirements of the Bank’s environmental and social safeguard policies and international best practices.
The environmental specialist will also be expected to contribute to the development of new approaches, guidance, and knowledge products, undertake project reviews, and to effectively disseminate the products of the Unit to build capacity amongst clients and stakeholders.
Peruse the official Terms of Reference for the Environmental Safeguards Senior Specialist.
Deadline for application is May 31, 2017 at 9:59 PM
Environmental or Social Risk management Specialist
The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is seeking to recruit an Environmental or Social Risk management Specialist to (i) lead the identification of safeguard risks and impacts in Bank operations, programs, country strategies, and sector strategies and provide recommendations on approaches to mitigation; and (ii) contribute to the development and implementation of a risk management framework to a) demonstrate effectiveness of safeguards; and b) provide information and promote action overview of risk vulnerabilities in portfolio at the appropriate levels.
The environmental or social specialist will also be expected to contribute to the development of new approaches, guidance notes, and knowledge products, and to effectively disseminate the products of the Unit to build capacity amongst clients and stakeholders.
Peruse the official Terms of References for the Environmental or Social Risk management Specialist.
Deadline for application is June 16, 2017 at 9:59 PM
The Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) has released its first Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017. This report card sums up what we know of marine and coastal climate change impacts on Caribbean Small Island Developing States, and explores some of the actions that are needed to respond to these impacts. Case studies are drawn from those SIDS that fulfil the project criteria for the Commonwealth Marine Economies Programme and are eligible to receive international aid (known as Official Development Assistance, or ODA) to highlight examples of climate change impacts at the level of individual SIDS. These Caribbean countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
This report card addresses three themes: climate change drivers; impacts on biological diversity; and society. It is based on twelve specially commissioned scientific papers covering the following themes and key topics:
- Climate change drivers: Extreme weather events, sea temperature and ocean acidification
- Biological diversity: Corals, mangroves, and fish and shellfish
- Society: Settlements and infrastructure, tourism and fisheries
The key topics, lead authors and reviewers were identified by Caribbean regional partners to ensure that the issues of greatest concern were addressed, and relevant regional experts were approached to provide the most up-to-date and accurate evidence.
Thirty four authors and reviewers, principally drawn from across the Caribbean region contributed to the key topic and theme papers, which are accessible through the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism and CME Programme websites. These comprehensive papers provide more detailed background information to support national and regional level action. They include sections describing our understanding of current and future climate change impacts, our confidence in that understanding, knowledge gaps and social and economic consequences.
Peruse the complete Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card 2017